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《芜湖百年百人·房秩五》百年过眼几云烟[散文]
文/张双柱(老卡)2015/10/31 16:07:24

创作背景:受市府委托,多人合著《芜湖百年百人(暂名)》即将出版。我承担的写作将陆续发出......
关键字:历史 散文 传记 安徽 芜湖 老卡 陈独秀

芜湖百年百人·房秩五

百年过眼几云烟

张双柱

 

  如果不是那个时代的地覆天翻,如果不是在那个时代结识了那个人,清末秀才房秩五或许走完自己修齐治平的人生,也如同其祖父、父亲一样,以一个典型旧知识分子的归宿,留个句号给后人。如果真这样的话,这本书也就写不到这位秀才了。

  房秩五,名宗岳,1877年出生于桐城县东乡浮山的一个书香门第。十九岁考中秀才,二十一岁坐馆为塾师,其时戊戌变法失败,世界列强掀起瓜分中国的狂潮,中国正酝酿一场掀天揭地大革命。1901年,比房秩五小两岁的陈独秀从日本回到安庆,与一些主张变法维新的爱国知识分子组成青年励志社。次年,房、陈相识,房受陈的影响,开始参与革命宣传活动,从此,这两位同年高中秀才的安庆老乡,在岁月的磨砺中结下了深厚的情谊,在江南芜湖留下了辉煌的一页。

  1904年开春,由陈独秀发起,同房秩五、吴守一创办了《安徽俗话报》。该报切合时代,评论时政,宣扬民主,开通民智,以救亡图存,并鼓吹革命。这是中国辛亥革命前安徽出版的第一份民主主义革命刊物,也是当时在国内最有影响的白话报刊。陈独秀为该报主编和主要撰稿人,已是桐城学堂五乡学长之一的房秩五负责教育版编撰,吴守一负责文艺副刊。鉴于芜湖经济地理位置的特殊性,再是芜湖有个绩溪人汪孟邹创办的安徽第一家新式书店——芜湖科学图书社,陈、房等人便在安庆组编稿件,然后邮寄芜湖科学图书社,转交章士钊主办的上海东大陆印书局印刷,印就后再运回芜湖向各地发行。3月,《安徽俗话报》创刊号在芜湖问世。是年秋,房秩五借助桐城学堂资助赴日本东京学习速成师范科,吴守一则随桐城学堂迁往桐城县,陈独秀遂将俗话报整个搬到芜湖,大本营就是科学图书社。

  也在这一年,冬,由枞阳人李光炯创办的安徽旅湘公学迁至芜湖,改名为安徽公学。李光炯聘请了当时一些著名的革命志士和专家学者来芜任教,如陈独秀、刘师培、陶成章、黄兴、苏曼殊、柏文蔚等,房秩五也被电召归国。房秩五来到芜湖后,在主持安徽公学所属公立速成师范学校的同时,继续参办《安徽俗话报》。

  房秩五是一位重情重义且极富正义感的文化人。李光炯、卢光浩是安徽旅湘公学的创办人,房秩五应李、卢之邀来芜办学后,在一起共事多年。1941年春,李光炯逝于西蜀,房秩五闻讯即赋《哭晦庐》四首,其一曰:“忆昔催归瀛海船,招游空望点苍烟。湘江兰芷盈怀袖,赭渚菁莪诵管弦。总为怀沙心不死,相期衔石海能填?何知老至忧沉陆,齑恨茫茫下九渊。”次年冬,卢光浩逝于立煌,房作《哭卢仲农》诗毕,悲情不能自抑,又作《哭仲农诗成追念晦庐复成一律》悼念两位亡友。房秩五这两首诗,既追念当初二公移址芜湖办学壮举和作者急切归芜情形,也为卢光浩原籍无为仍在沦陷中深深感叹。

  房秩五对友人意挚情深,突出表现在对陈独秀的交往与怀念上。房秩五在去日本求学时,特意来到芜湖与陈独秀叙别,当时秋雨缠绵,接连下了三天,陈对房说:“你是天留客。”于是二人一连三日纵谈天下事,畅快之极。第四天,云开日出,陈独秀帮房秩五提着包袱,一直把房送上船。1942年5月,陈独秀病逝于四川江津,房秩五闻讯作《挽陈仲甫》二首志悼,第二首回忆了当时他们在安庆藏书楼开会演说“舌战雄能逃竖子”的气魄、一起办报“笔诛严更慑群魔”的影响,怀念赴日留学前到芜湖与陈叙别时“留人别馆三秋雨,送我晴江万里波”的终身难忘之情,抒发出“往事苍茫谁与语,侧身西望泪滂沱”的诚挚哀悼之情。此后,房秩五与住在安庆的陈独秀之子陈松年一直保持着联系。直至全国解放后的1956年,有友人从旧书摊中淘得《安徽俗话报》四册持以见示,又引起房秩五对往昔与陈等一起办报的回忆,写了两首绝句追悼故人,并以三百六十余字序详细追忆了他与陈独秀的交往,以及俗话报筹办于安庆、迁址至芜湖及停办之原因。

  房秩五《挽陈仲甫》第一首颌联云:“是非已付千秋论,毁誉宁凭众口传?”更坦陈自己对挚友的信赖,对挚友所受到的不公正待遇表示愤慨。我在编撰《芜湖文化丛书》之《芜湖历代诗词》时,读到房秩五这诗句,不禁为之愕然。因为在此十年前,即1998年,自己曾写过《书愤》一首,其颌联云:“是非功过由公论,毁誉沉浮任自然。”旋即记入诗话,叹曰:“二诗颌联相似,自个儿亦疑是抄袭。”

  房秩五在芜湖同陈独秀等人共事几年后,于1908年春,应时任高等审判厅厅长的秋浦友人许世英之邀,赴奉天任机关文秘工作、《东三省日报》主笔,后又随出任司法部长的许世英赴京任《司法报》主编。1921年秋,许世英任安徽省长,房秩五再次应邀入幕,担任省长公署秘书,后出任芜湖道尹。道尹是民国时期的官名,全国共九十三道,管理所辖各县行政事务,隶属省长。芜湖任上,他协助许士英等进步人士反对军阀倪道琅贿取选票、包办选举,由此并取得了胜利。

  但是,一生耿直的房秩五厌恶官场腐败,立志文化教育事业,1924年,他辞官回家乡全身心投入了文化教育。作为民国著名教育家,中华人民共和国建立后,房秩五以特邀代表的身份出席了第一次全国政治协商会议,历任安徽省第一至三届政协副主席,1966年11月病逝,享年九十岁。

  “百年过眼几云烟,投老沉思益惘然。”房秩五,惯看过眼云烟的老人,必是另一番眼界,在他八十高龄亦即1956年,将自己一生诗作遴选301首,自费亲编刊印《浮渡山房诗存》。难道,这仅仅是他执意以一个文人面目谢幕于此生?我,不得而解!难道,1956年以后,到1966年谢世,整整十年,他再没写过一首诗?抑或……我,更不得而解!我,一遍遍默诵咀嚼他的“百年过眼几云烟”诗句,一遍遍体会着他的晚年自述:

  “我平生有不满现状的个性。在前清,我不满清室;在民国初年,我不满袁世凯;在民国十二年后,我尤不满蒋介石。但是不满现状,就应该推翻现状,改造现状,我不能这样做,这是我知道做不到的懦弱表现。”

  似言犹未尽,又似言不由衷。

  房秩五最终留给我们的是一个问号。



  http://www.whrww.com/thread-18094-1-1.html  


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越青
时间:2015/11/1 7:17:33

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时间:2015/10/31 20:02:45

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